Fecha de la publicación: 05/01/2017
Autor: Andrés Reyes Valdivia (1), Africa Duque Santos (2), Marta Garnica Ureña (2), Asunción Romero Lozano (2), Enrique Aracil Sanus (2), Julia Ocaña Guaita 2, Claudio Gandaria (2)
1 Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Ramón y Cajal’s University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2 Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Ramón y Cajal’s University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.
Background: Primary aortic mural thrombus (AMT) is a rare entity. Asymptomatic AMT may be found in imaging studies for other disease studies. Symptomatic AMT as embolic events may localize in the arterial branches of the aorta; limb ischemia is the most usual clinical presentation, though. However, when proximal aorta is compromised, visceral branches occlusion and ischemia may determine morbidity and mortality in these patients.
Methods: We performed a retrospective study with collection of data from January 2011 to September 2016. Medical records of patients were reviewed for: demographic data, cardiovascular risk factors or any known prothrombotic predisposing condition, clinical presentation, vessel of embolism, localization of aortic thrombus, treatment of AMT and symptoms, follow-up, and computed tomography scan imaging findings.
Results: A total of 8 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 54.7 ± 11.5 years, with male/female ratio 3:1. Four (50%) patients had AMT at the arch or descending aorta, 3 (37.5%) patients in the infrarenal sector, and the remaining in the visceral aorta. All but one patient received anticoagulation alone for the aortic thrombus. Patient with femoral thromboembolectomy died in the early postoperative time due to severe massive embolism. Median follow-up was 23 months (range, 1-50). Five out of seven patients showed complete aortic thrombus resolution in imaging follow up. None of the patients presented recurrence of embolic events.
Conclusions: An anticoagulation first-approach treatment may be reasonable if mild organ damage is encountered. This strategy may be continued if no recurrences in embolic events are encountered, as high percentage of thrombus resolution is expected. Open or endovascular may be saved for life-threatening visceral or arch branches damage.
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